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    您当前的位置 : 中国张掖网 >> 小婉看张掖 速看!再做这件事后果很严重…… 来源:中国张掖网    0 人参与互动 2018年10月18日 19:33

           日前,张掖市人民政府办公室印发《关于严禁露天焚烧秸秆和垃圾的通知》,通知指出,有关部门将严查露天焚烧秸秆和垃圾的行为,一旦被查获,后果很严重。

    一、强烈危害人体健康

    第一,焚烧秸秆会强烈危害人体健康。农作物秸秆中含有氮、磷、钾、碳氢元素及有机硫等。特别是刚收割的秸秆尚未干透,经不完全燃烧会产生大量氮氧化物、二氧化硫、碳氢化合物及烟尘、氮氧化物和碳氢化合物,在阳光作用下还可能产生二次污染物臭氧等。其次焚烧秸秆时,大气中二氧化硫、二氧化氮、可吸入颗粒物三项污染指数达到高峰值。当可吸入颗粒物浓度达到一定程度时,对人的眼睛、鼻子和咽喉含有黏膜的部分刺激较大,轻则造成咳嗽、胸闷、流泪,严重时可能导致支气管炎发生。

          二、造成严重的大气污染

    不仅会引发呼吸道疾病、增加交通事故发生率等。同时,焚烧秸秆还有可能造成火灾,危及人们的财产和人身安全。2015年,山东省日东高速郓城段因秸秆焚烧浓烟引起的车辆连环相撞事故。2015年,安徽省合徐高速宿州南道口因秸秆焚烧浓烟引起双向发生多车追尾事故。

    三、降低土壤肥力致土地贫瘠

    秸秆中含有的氮、硫等元素大部分转化为挥发性物质或颗粒而进入大气,只有钾元素等部分物质得以保留,营养元素损失严重,非常不利于土壤培肥。据测定,每焚烧一次秸秆就会使土壤有机质下降0.2~0.3个百分点。这些土壤有机质如果通过秸秆还田来生成,一般需要连续5~10年。

    四、水分走失致耕地墒情

    相关实验研究表明,秸秆焚烧使土壤水分损失65%-80%,这种破坏对于北方干旱地区来说尤为严重。

    五、破坏农田生物群落

    研究表明,未经火烧的玉米样地和大豆样地均采集到26个属的甲螨,而火烧后的玉米样地和大豆样地仅分别采集到16个属和21个属的甲螨。焚烧后土壤中的细菌、放线菌和真菌数量分别较焚烧前减少了85.95%、78.58%和87.28%,容易造成农田土壤板结。

            六、致某些病虫更加严重
            例如,麦秸焚烧处理后,毛毛虫、黑粉病等病虫害的发生率要高于秸秆还田。实验测定结果表明,秸秆焚烧后的毛毛虫病害作物植株比例为22株/100株,高于秸秆还田情况下的13株/100株。
            七、致农作物产量降低
            实验显示,生长在秸秆焚烧土壤中的玉米和大豆幼苗的根系总吸收面积、根系活跃吸收面积均显著减小,尤其是根系活跃吸收面积的减小最为显著,减少率分别高达21.62%和21.15%。这表明,秸秆焚烧土壤不利于玉米和大豆幼苗根系的生长,根系活力明显下降,对玉米和大豆幼苗的正常生长和抗逆性非常不利。

     

     

    编辑: 杨旭康

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